محتوى التربية السكانية

محتوى التربية السكانية :د.عبدالمجيد حميد الكبيسي محتوى التربية السكانية
في كتب الجغرافية المدرسية لصفوف المرحلة الثانوية في العراق

الباحث
د. عبدالمجيد حميد ثامر الكبيسي
المديرية العامة للتربية في محافظة الانبار
مدير الاعداد والتدريب

بحث ديموغرافي تربوي منشور في مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الانسانية
(مجلة علمية دورية محكمة فصلية ) تصدرها جامعة الانبار
المجلد الرابع - العدد الرابع - كانون الاول 2009
(ص216- 231 )

2009م 1431هـ

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
[...وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلًا فَكَثرَكُم...]
صدق الله العظيم
(الأعراف86)

محتوى التربية السكانية
في كتب الجغرافية المدرسية لصفوف المرحلة الثانوية في العراق

تعريف بالبحث

مشكلة البحث
تمثلت مشكلة البحث بالاسئلة الآتية:
■ مامدى توافر مفاهيم التربية السكانية في كتب الجغرافية للمرحلة الثانوية في العراق.

■ ماهو ثقل الوزن النسبي للمحتوى السكاني في كتب الجغرافية للمرحلة الثانوية حسب صفوفها الستة وحسب المستويين المتوسط والاعدادي.

■ ماهو مستوى معرفة ومهارة مدرسي ومدرسات الجغرافية للمرحلة الثانوية بتحديد حجم القضايا السكانية في مادة الجغرافية التي يدرسونها .

هدف البحث واهميته
هدف البحث التعرف على مدى توافر مفاهيم التربية السكانية في كتب الجغرافية لصفوف التعليم الثانوي ، وتحديد الوزن النسبي لها ، والوقوف على مدى معرفة مدرّسيها ومدرّساتها بحجم القضايا السكانية التي تتضمنها تلك الكتب.

اما اهميته فهي: التعرف على بعض اوجه وضع التربية السكانية في المناهج المدرسية في العراق وبالتحديد كتب مادة الجغرافية ، واعداد مصفوفات مفاهمية سكانية لمادة الجغرافية في ضوء النشاط العالمي والتجديد التربوي ومتطلبات التنمية في القطر، واستفادة مخططي المناهج وصنّاع القرارفي تطعيم الكتب المدرسية للجغرافية بها ،فضلا عن الضرورة الملحة في تدريب واعداد مدرسي ومدرسات الجغرافية للمرحلة الثانوية باستخدام الطرق والاستراتيجيات المناسبة . واخيرا سد جزء من الفراغ المعرفي في مجال الدراسات السكانية في العراق .

حدود البحث
اقتصر البحث على:

■ كتب الجغرافية للصفوف الستة للمرحلة الثانوية في العراق: الاول، الثاني، الثالث،الرابع العام، الخامس الادبي، السادس الادبي.والتي نشرت عام 2005، 2006 .

■ اقتصرالبحث على المدرسين والمدرسات الذين يقومون بتدريس الجغرافية في محافظة الانبار للعام الدراسي 2006/2007 .

■ وزن محتوى التربية السكانية الذي يتضمن الابعاد الديموغرافية للمحتوى السكاني في مادة الجغرافية لصفوف التعليم الثانوي (المصفوفة الاولى لمحتوى للتربية السكانية).

تحديد المصطلحات

التربية السكانية
عرفها الباحث اجرائيا بأنها " جهد تربوي مقصود يهدف الى تمكين المتعلمين في الحصول على المعارف والمواقف والقيم الضرورية اللازمة لفهم وتقييم الوضع القائم في المجال السكاني, والعوال المؤثرة فيه,وتأثيرهذا الوضع في رفاهية الاسر, والجماعات والبلد والعالم، حاضرا ومستقبلا, ثم اتخاذ القرارات العقلانية والقيام بالسلوك المناسب بما يخدم التنمية الشاملة في ظل مقومات المجتمع وامكاناته".

محتوى التربية السكانية
عرفه الباحث اجرائيا بأنه "مجموع المعارف والمعلومات والمفاهيم والمبادئ التي تهتم بالقضايا السكانية وعلاقاتها المتشعبة والمتبادلة التأثيرمع متغيرات التنمية الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والثقافية والبشرية والبيئية،على مستوى الكل أي المجتمع، وعلى مستوى الجزء أي الفرد أو العائلة ".و يطلق احيانا على المحتوى السكاني اصطلاحا:محتوى التربية السكانية
.

كتب الجغرافية
هي الكتب المدرسية المقرة من قبل وزارة التربية للصفوف الستة للمرحلة الثانوية الثانوي للعام الدراسي2005/2006، 2006/2007.

المرحلة الثانوية
تمثل المرحلة الثانوية في العراق المستوى الثاني في السلم التعليمي، وتكون على مستويين متتاليين: المتوسط ( الاول، الثاني ،الثالث) والاعدادي ( الرابع، الخامس ، السادس).

خلفية نظرية

محتوى التربية السكانية

يعد المحتوى - المضمون- العنصر الثاني من عناصر المنهج الدراسي للتربية الـسكانية, حيث تشكــــل الخطوط العريضة لجوهـــــره مفهومـــا ضيقا للمنهـــج.(Yadav,1999VII:p.1)

والمحتوى عبــــــــــارة عن مجموعة من:" المعلومات, والمبادئ, والمفاهيم, والافكار, وما يصاحب ذلك من رسوم وصورواشكال توضيحية وأسئلة وتطبيقات، وتشمل هذه المصطلحات المعرفية موضوعات جديدة كليا على المتعلمّ, وموضوعات اخرى وضعت لمساعدة وتحقيق الترابط بين المقررات, كما ان المحتوى هو الوسيط الذي تتحقق من خلاله الأهداف التعليمية " .(الكبيسي,2007:ص137)

واذا كانت " الدراسات السكانية " تعرّف بأنها مجموعة المعارف والمفاهيم والنظريات التي تصف أو تحاول تفسير حركية السكان, وعلاقتها بالأوساط الاجتماعية والثقافية والسياسية والبيولوجية فانها تشكل قاعدة معرفية رصينة لابد منها في مجالات الثقافة السكانية ومتطلبات التنمية . وفي الوقت نفسه لاتشكّل الدراسات السكانية علما متكاملا, فهي تعبير يستخدم ضمن إطار المصطلحات التربوية, ويوازي تنسيقا للمضامين التي تفرزها العلوم المختلفة والاختصاصات المهنية. (Pandey,1999 I:p.5)

وفي ضوء ذلك يتألف "المحتوى السكاني" من مجموع المعارف والمعلومات والمفاهيم والمبادئ التي تصف, أو تشرح, أو تفسّر, أو تحلّل القضايا السكانية مثل: حجم السكان وتوزيعهم ودينامياتهم وتركيبهم، وعلاقة ذلك يالعوامل الاجنماعية والاقتصادية والثقافية على مستوى الكل والجزء. (يونسكو,1986:ص16)

وعندما يؤطّر المحتوى السكاني بالمنهج التربوي وفقا لتصميم مدرروس ومجهز، ينسجم مع البنية التربوية والانماط التعليمية السائدة في البلد، وبلغة يفهمها المدرسون والطلبة ،فأن هذا المحتوى يطلق عليه "محتوى التربية السكانية".(Pandey,1999 I :pp.7-9)

ويختلف محتوى التربية السكانية من بلد إلى اخر وفقا للتراث الثقافي الوطني والاوضاع السكانية في كل دولة، كما يختلف بين الباحثين المهتمين بها ، فضلا عن تفاوت في حجم دائرة الاهتمام .( سلوم ، 2005 :ص478)

واستنادا الى مفاهيم النظرية النظمية فأن محتوى التربية السكانية يقسم الى ثلاثة اقسام ( انطلاقا من المفاهيم الاكثر عمومية الى اقلها ) :

1.المجالات (القاعدة المعرفية للتربية السكانية) :
وهي الميادين العلمية التي تشتق منها مفاهيم التربية السكانية ، وتعد المدخل الرئيسي للتربية السكانية والاكثر عمومية، ومنها تشتق المضامين الرئيسة .

2.المضامين الرئيسة:
وهي روؤس الموضوعات السكانية المشتقة من المجالات ، وما يرتبط بها من مفاهيم على شكل حقائق ومعلومات ومعارف ومباديء ونظريات في التربية السكانية.

3.المضامين الفرعية:
وهي المعارف والمعلومات والمفاهيم المشتقة من المضامين الرئيسة ، وهي الكلمات المفتاحية للتربية السكانية.
(زيتون،1998:ص3) ،(الاحمدي،2007:ص14) ، (الاحمد،2004:ص387-388)

وتحكم المستويات الثلاثة اعلاه علاقة تفاعلية متكاملة بين مجالات التربية السكانية ومضامينها الرئيسة والفرعية.وتمتد هذه العلاقة فضلا عن الجوانب المعرفية ، الى اخلاقيات سكانية وقيم واتجاهات ومهارات تتطلب تضمينا في الاهداف والمحتوى والانشطة من قبل مخططي المناهج والبرامج ،كما تتطلب من المدرسين وضعها في الحسبان في طرائق تدريسهم ، وفي اختيارأدوات التقويم المناسبة لها . (سلوم،2005:ص947)

ومهما يكن من أمرفأن المفهوم الحالي للتربية السكانية هو نتيجة مسيرة تدريجية تتيح لنا خلاصتها أن نتلمس ابعادها المختلفة (يونسكو,1986:ص21) . وفي هذا السياق يمكن اعتماد مصفوفات مفاهمية سكانية والإطارالمفاهيمي الذي تندرج فيه ، ضمن تحليل المحتوى والتي يمكن ان تتضمن ما يأتي:

■ المفاهيم الاساسية (الرئيسة).
■ المفاهيم الفرعية.
■ المواضيع التي تنضوي تحت المواضيع الفرعية او تشكل ابعادا اساسية لها.
وقد تمّ إدراج هذه المفاهيم والمواضيع في مصفوفات يمكن من خلالها إدراك وجود المفهوم بحسب الكتاب والفصل والصفحة . وهذه المصفوفات هي :
الاولى: مصفوفة قضايا السكان.
الثانية: مصفوفة قضايا الصحة الإنجابية والجنسية.
الثالثة: مصفوفة قضايا النوع الاجتماعي. (نوفل، 2006:ص12-20)

وتختص المصفوفة الاولى اعلاه بمحتوى التربية السكانية في مادة الجغرافية فقط ( وهي موضوع البحث الحالي) ، حيث اعتمد في بناء او فحص هذه المصفوفة على ادبيات التربية السكانية (مع تعريقها جهد الامكان) وخصوصا وثائق اليونسكو, وبعض الدراسات الميدانية مثل : دراسة نوفل2006 ، ودراسة Olawepo2000 ، ودراسة زيتون1992، ودراسة القاعود1997.

اما المصفوفتان الثانية والثالثة اعلاه فتختصان بمحتوى التربية السكانية في المواد الدراسية الاخرى غير مادة الجغرافية ( الاجتماعيات، العلوم ، الاحياء، التربية الاسلامية ، الكيمياء، الفيزياء، التربية الصحية ، التربية الأسرية،التربية الرياضية،.....). ومن الممكن ان تكون مادة الجغرافية انموذجا يحتذى به منهجيا في بقية المواد الدراسية الاخرى غير الجغرافية فيما يخص المصفوفتين الاخريتين ،وذلك في بحوث قادمة حول التربية السكانبة.

الدراسات السا بقة
خلصت الحلقة الدراسية الاقليمية حول التربية السكانية وتطوير المناهج التي عقدت في الرباط /المغرب في شهر كانون الثاني عام 1980 ،وشارك فيها سبعة وثلاثون مربيا من سبع عشرة دولة عربية (بضمنها العراق) الى اجماع الرأي بانه على الرغم من التباين الكبير في الاوضاع الديموغرافية والاجتماعية والاختلاف في السياسات فان هناك اجماعا على تحبيذ التربية السكانية، كما ان هناك تقديرا لاسهامها المتوقع في الجهود الانمائية للاقطار العربية. (يونسكو1987:ص94)

وعدّت التربية السكانية (في الحلقة الدراسية اعلاه ) جزءا من عملية التعليم بمجملها، ويقصد منها مساعدة المتعلمين في تنظيم حياتهم ومحيطهم ومن ثم تحسين نوعية حياتهم، لذلك ليس ثمة تناقض بين التربية السكانية والقيم الثقافية للمجتمع العربي. كما ان صلتها وثيقة سواء بالبلدان التي ترغب في زيادة كثافة سكانها، او بالبلدان التي ترغب في تثبيت معدلات النمو السكاني لديها او تغييرانماط التوزيع السكاني فيها . ( الحفار،2007:ص13)

واشار اللقاني وبرنس عام 1982 الى ان التربية السكانية تقوم على حقائق مستمدة من علم الجغرافية، وذلك لاحتواء هذا العلم على معلومات عن الحياة الاسرية والتنمية الاقتصادية والسكان ... ، وهذه المعلومات يمكن توجيهها اثناء عرضها الذي يحدث الأثر المطلوب في الطلبة، وهنا تأتي اهمية طرائق التدريس والنشاط المدرسي وحماسة المدرس وايمانه بالحقائق التي يقدمها للطلبة . (اللقاني وبرنس،1982:ص59)

كما اكد مؤتمر التطوير التربوي الشامل في عمان 1987 على ضرورة تدريس التربية السكانية وتنمية الوعي السكاني من خلال دمج مفاهيمها وبث مضامينها في المناهج الدراسية، وخاصة في مناهج الجغرافية ومقرراتها، ادراكا من المسؤولين آنذاك لاهمية العلاقة الوثيقة بين التربية السكانية وتدريس الجغرافية على نحو خاص، وتدريس المواد الاخرى على نحوعام .(القاعود،2001: ص 85)

وفي هذا السياق ترتبت – زمنيا - دراسات ميدانية عديدة ومنها التي تناولت محتوى كتب مادة الجغرافبة من القضايا السكانية نذكر بعضها كالآتي:
في عام 1992 قامت كارين واخرون (Karen and other) بدراسة مسحية في الولايات المتحدة لثلاثين نصا من النصوص المتوافرة في كتب الجغرافية لمؤلفين مشهورين للوقوف على محاولة استخراج مدى شرحها مفاهيم التربية السكانية ، وتمخضت النتائج عن مصفوفات تبين ترتيب كل نص في تخطيطه للموضوعات السكانية، وساعدت هذه المصفوفات المدرسين في وضع خطط حول نقاط الضعف لنصوصهم الحالية، ومعرفة المواد التي يحتاجونها في تحسين موضوعاتهم . (Karen and other , 1992)

كما اجرى زيتون عام 1992 دراسة في سوريا هدفت الى تطوير مضامين التربية السكانية في مناهج الجغرافية ، حيث تناولت محورين : الاول نظري : تضمن الاسس النظرية لنظام التربية السكانية والمسألة السكانية، وتحليل المضامين السكانية في مناهج وكتب الجغرافية وتقويمها . والثاني عملي: تضمن تجريب وحدة في التربية السكانية بعنوان« النمو السكاني العالمي» ، وتحسين مضامينها وقياس فاعليتها .توصلت الدراسة الى ان الكتب المدرسية لمناهج الدراسة في المرحلة الثانوية تفتقد مضامين التربية السكانية وتعاني من قصور كمي ونوعي ، اضافة الى وجود فاعلية عالية في التعلم الذاتي لمضامين الوحدة المتطورة . ( زيتون ، 1992: ص131-132 )

وفي دراسة متميزة قام بها القاعود وعباينه عام 1997 في الاردن / جامعة اليرموك بعنوان: « مدى توافر التربية السكانية في كتب الجغرافية للمرحلة الاساسية العليا في الاردن ومدى اكتساب المعلمين لها »، والتي هدفت الى التعرف على مدى توافر مفاهيم التربية السكانية من خلال تحليل محتوى كتب الجغرافية في هذه المرحلة الدراسية ، ووجهة نظر المعلمين الذين يدرسون الصفوف « الثامن ، والتاسع، والعاشر»، ومدى اكتساب المعلمين لها. واشارت النتائج الى ان كتاب الجغرافبة للصف العاشر كان في المرتبة الاولى من توافر مفاهيم التربية السكانية ، يليه كتاب الصف التاسع ، ثم الصف الثامن . ولم تظهر النتائج فروقا في مدى اكتساب المعلمين لمفاهيم التربية السكانية تعزى لجنس المعلم والتخصص والخبرة والمؤهل العلمي والمشاركة في الدورات والجامعة التي تخرج فيها . ( القاعود، 2001 : ص57)

واجريت دراسة في نيجيريا / جامعة IIorin / كلية التربية عام 2000, من قبل اولايبو (Olawepo) واستهدفت اقتراح إستراتيجية تقديم التربية السكانية على نحو مباشر إلى مناهج الدراسات السكانية في المدارس الثانوية النيجيرية, من اجل إظهار المفاهيم السكانية الجوهرية أمام تعامل المدرّسين معها . واقتصرت عينة الدراسة على كتب الدراسات الاجتماعية للصفوف الثلاثة لهذه المرحلة وبتركيز على كتب الجغرافيا . واعتمدت الدراسة طريقة تحليل المحتوى للمناهج القائمة لهذه الدراسات لاجل تحديد الأنماط الحالية للتربية السكانية, وذلك باستخدام ثلاثة أطر منفصلة عن بعضها البعض - مقترحة في ادبيات التربية السكانية - واختيار مواضيع ووحدات مرغوبة للتربية السكانية, ثم إعداد قائمة نهائية بها تدمج بمناهج الدراسات الاجتماعية الموجودة . وقد تمخّضت هذه الدراسة عن اعداد وحدات دراسية, تعود للتربية السكانية في مناهج الدراسات الاجتماعية بلغت 35 نوعا نصفها لمادة الجغرافيا .(Olawepo,2000:pp.125-140)

واجرت ديسوزا و كولسون (Colson & De souza) عام 2005 دراسة استقصائية عن التربية السكانية من وجهة نظر مدرسي الجغرافية في التعليم الثانوي الذين يشكلون نسبة 60% من مجتمع الدراسة في ولاية مينيسوتا الامريكية /مكتب المراجع السكانية/ جمعية التربية الجغرافية. واظهرت النتائج ذات الصلة بموضوع البحث ان الوقت المخصص للحصص الدراسية في مجال التربية السكانية يتراوح كمتوسط حسابي بين( 3-4 ) ساعات اسبوعيا ، وان 10% من السنة مكرسة لتعليم المواضيع السكانية(Colson & De souza,2005:pp.1-7) .

وفي عام 2006 قامت نوفل وآخرون في لبنان / المركز التربوي للبحوث والأنماء / وزارة التعليم العالي بتحليل محتوى الكتب المدرسية في مجال التربية السكانية في مرحلة التعليم الثانوي ، كان لكتب الجغرافية نصيب يربو على 18٪. وقد ارتكز التحليل على طريقة تحليل المحتوى حيث تم ادراج المفاهيم والمواضيع السكانية في مصفوفة يمكن خلالها ادراك وجود المفاهيم بحسب الكتاب والدرس والصفحة. وقد استندت الدراسة الى مراجع سكانية ووثائق دولية واقليمية واسعة الثراء العلمي والتربوي . وقد تم الاتفاق على تحديد العناوين الآتية بوصفها مفاهيم رئيسة للمحتوى السكاني في الكتب المدرسية التي خضعت الى التحليل :

■ توزع السكان.
■ بنية السكان .
■ الاسرة .
■ المساواة بين الجنسين وتمكين المرأة .
■ الصحة الانجابية.
■ نمو السكان.
■ حركية السكان.
■ السكان والتنمية.

وقد تمخضت عن توصيات لمعالجة نواحي القصور والضعف في المحتوى السكاني الحالي ووضع خطط مرتبة للنهوض به بما يرفد التربية السكانية بالتطور المفاهيمي الذي يواكب التقدم على صعيد الوطن والعالم .
(نوفل واخرون,2006:ص19-64)

ويستخلص الباحث من هذه الدراسات مايأتي :

■ افتقار بعض كتب الجغرافية ومناهجها لمضامين التربية السكانية ان بعضها استخدم اسلوب تحليل المحتوى باعتماد المصفوفات المفاهمية.

■ استحدثت بعضها وحدات خاصة بمفاهيم التربية السكانية .

■ اكدت ادخال مفاهيم التربية السكانية باسلوب التطعيم وليس باسلوب المادة الجديدة المنفصلة.

■ ان المتوسط الحسابي للمحتوى السكاني في حدود 10% من السنة الدراسية.
■ انها تمهد للاستفادة من الاطار المفاهيمي للمصفوفات من قبل الباحثين الاخرين او الدول الاخرى بالاستناد الى انشطة المنظمات الدولية والاقليمية .

منهج البحث واجراءاته

انتهج الباحث منهج البحث الوصفي القائم على الدراسات المسحية (المسح العام تحليل المحتوى) من خلال استجواب عينة من مجتمع البحث بصورة غير مباشرة بهدف وصف وتحليل الظاهرة المدروسة ، اضافة الى تحليل محتوى الكتب المدرسية موضوعة البحث.

مجتمع البحث

يتكون مجتمع البحث من جميع مدرسي ومدرسات الجغرافية للمرحلة الثانوية في محافظة الانبار البالغ عددهم (611 ) مدرّسا ومدرّسة وهم يشكلون حوالي( 8% ) من مجموع مدرسي ومدرسات المحافظة. كما انهم يتوزعون على ( 367 ) مدرسة ثانوية بدرجات متنوعة وبجنس مختلف (بحسب احصاءات مديرية تربية الانبار) .

عينة البحث
تم اختيارعينة طبقية عشوائية من مجتمع البحث كما يأتي:

■ تم الاختيار العشوائي لـ 5٪ من مدارس مجتمع البحث أي ( 18) مدرسة ثانوية .

■ تم الاختيار العشوائي لفردين اثنين من مدرسي الجغرافية في كل مدرسة من مدارس العينة.

■ وبعد المعالجة الاحصائية لفاقد المستجيبين اصبح العدد النهائي(36) مبحوثا ومبحوثة.

اداة البحث
استعان الباحث بالاستبيان أداة لتحقيق اهداف بحثه المتضمنة تقدير الوزن النسبي للمحتوى السكاني (الملحق1)، وذلك بسبر ارآء المبحوثين من خلال ادلآئهم بنتائج عملية حساب عدد الصفحات في كل من المحتوى السكاني والمحتوى الكلى لكتب الجغرافية حسب كل صف من صفوف المرحلة الثانوية، ومن ثم تقدير النسبة المئوية. ويتم بعد ذلك مقارنتها مع تقديرات الباحث المناظرة.
وقد تحقق صدق المحتوى للأداة من خلال جمعها للبيانات التي تعكس نفس الموضوع المطلوب قياسه . كما تحقق الصدق الظاهري بعرضها على مجموعة من المتخصصين من ذوي الخبرة والدراية في الجغرافية وطرق تدريسها، حيث اقرت صيغة الاسئلة بعد تعديلات طفيفة عليها . اما ثبات الأداة فقد تأكد من خلال استخدام معامل الثبات (معامل ارتباط بيرسون ) بين تطبيقين للأداة بينهما اسبوعان على 15 مدرسا ومدرسة من غير عينة ، حيث كان هذا المعامل في حدود 0.92
الوسائل الاحصائية
تم تطبيق الصيغة الآتية لتقدير الوزن النسبي للمحتوى السكاني في كتب الجغرافية :

عدد الصفحات (للمحتوى السكاني)
وزن المحتوى = ---------------
مجموع الصفحات (للمحتوى الكلي)

× 100

(Colson & De souza,2005:pp.1-7

(الظاهر,1992:ص80 - 88)

كما تم استخدام التكرار والنسب المئوية والمتوسط الحسابي في المعالجات الاحصائية للبيانات .

مستلزمات البحث
1. لغرض تحديد الوزن النسبي للمحتوى السكاني في كتب الجغرافية في المرحلة الثانوية، اعتمد الباحث عدد الصفحات التي يقوم المدرس بتدريسها . وتم اعتماد أسلوبين لذلك وهما :

■ الأسلوب الاول، ويتمثل بوصف الفصل الخاص بالسكان حالياً في كل كتاب من الكتب المدرسية الستة للجغرافية محتوى سكانياً مستقلا ومتكاملا.

■ الاسلوب الثاني، وهو اسلوب ترتيب مقترح للمحتوى السكاني يعتمد تركيز التحليل على طريقة " تحليل المحتوى" التي تتمثل في تحديد المفاهيم الأساسية المتضمنة بدورها مفاهيم فرعية(ملحق 2), ويحتوي بعض هذه الاخيرة على عدد من المواضيع التي تنضوي تحتها, أو تشكّل ابعاداً اساسية لها. (نوفل,2006:ص20)

وقد تمّ إدراج هذه المفاهيم والمواضيع من خلال الأسلوب الثاني اعلاه في مصفوفة يمكن من خلالها إدراك وجود المفهوم بحسب الكتاب والفصل والصفحة( الملحق2) .

2. اعتمدت مقارنة نتائج الاسلوبين اعلاه بوصفها وسيلة للتعرف على مؤشرات إحصائية عن المحتوى السكاني الحالي من ناحية ، وبعد ترتيبة مجددا من ناحية اخرى .

3. تم اعتماد نتائج استبيان البحث (الأداة) في عرض تقديرات المحتوى السكاني لكتب الجغرافية لكل من الصفوف الستة للمرحلة الثانوية ، وذلك من وجهة نظر مدرسي مادة الجغرافية ( المبحوثين). فقد طلب الباحث في اداة البحث من مدرسي مادة الجغرافية في كل من صفوف المرحلة الثانوية تقدير الوزن النسبي للمحتوى السكاني اي القضايا المتعلقة بالتربية السكانية, اعتماداً على معايير المحتوى السكاني (اختياره وتنظيمه)، وذلك على ضوء فحوى المصفوفة الاولى . ويتم ذلك بتقدير تقريبي للوزن النسبي للموضوع والمفردات التي سيقاس تحصيل المتعلم فيها في المادة الاختبارية, بحيث يمكن معرفة ذلك بحساب "اعداد الصفحات" لتدريس كل موضوع من المادة الاختبارية بالنسبة الى الموضوعات الاخرى ، وإجراء مقارنة ذلك مع نتائج حساب الوزن النسبي لها التي قام بها الباحث (الملحق2) .

( نتائج البحث ومناقشتها في الرسالة القادمة ان شاء الله تعالى)

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32. Yadav, .S.B, 1999, V11 Curriculum Development in Population Education, Content and Methodology, Jamie Millie, New Delhi, India .

د. عبدالمجيد حميد الكبيسي

العنوان الأكاديمي :الأكآديمية العليا للدراسات العلمية والإنسانية، قسم العلوم التربوية والنفسية، بغداد، العراق.

عنوان العمل :العراق/ وزارة التربية /المديرية العامة لتربية محافظة الانبار / مدير الاعداد والتدريب

Title in English: 
Geography books in school among high school in Iraq The content of population education
Abstract in English: 
D. Thamer Abdel Hamid al-Kubaisi Directorate General for Education in the Anbar province Preparation and Training Manager Search demographic educational publication in the Journal of Anbar University for Human Sciences (Scientific periodical court quarterly) issued by the Al Anbar University Volume IV - Issue IV - December 2009 (P. 216-231) 2009 1431 H In the name of God the Merciful [... And remember when you were little Vktherkm ...] The truth of God Almighty (Custom 86) The content of population education Geography books in school among high school in Iraq The definition of research Research Problem The research problem was heckled at the following: ■ Mamady the availability of population education concepts in the geography books in the secondary stage in Iraq. ■ What is the weight of the relative weight of the content of population geography books in the secondary stage by six ranks, according to both the middle and lower. ■ What is the level of knowledge and skill of teachers of geography in the secondary stage to determine the size of population issues in geography classes, they teach. Objective of this research and its importance The research aims to identify the availability of the concepts of population education in the geography books to the ranks of secondary education, and determining the relative weight it, and stand on their knowledge of teachers and Madrsadtha the size of population issues contained in these books. The importance they are: to identify some aspects of the development of population education in school curricula in Iraq and specifically wrote an article geography, and the preparation of matrices Mphahmip population of geography classes in the light of global activity and renewal, educational and development requirements in the country and the use of curriculum planners and policymakers Alaqrarvi vaccination textbooks for geography, as well the urgent need to train and prepare teachers of geography at the secondary level by using the appropriate methods and strategies. Finally, fill part of the vacuum of knowledge in the field of population studies in Iraq. Frontiers of research Search limited to: ■ geography books for grades six to high school in Iraq: the first, second, third, fourth year, the fifth literary, literary VI. And published in 2005.2006. ■ Aguetsralbges teachers and teachers who teach geography in Anbar province, for the academic year 2006/2007. ■ weight of the content of population education, which includes demographic dimensions of the content of population geography classes, the ranks of secondary education (the first matrix of the content of the education population). Determine the terms Population Education Known researcher procedural as "an effort to education intended aims to enable learners to obtain the knowledge, attitudes and values necessary to understand and assess the status of the population field, and Alawal influencing it, and Toterhma the situation in the well-being of families, communities and the country and the world, present and future, then rational decisions and do appropriate behavior to serve the comprehensive development in light of the elements of society and its potential. " The content of population education Known researcher procedurally as a "body of knowledge and information, concepts and principles concerned with population issues and their relationship to complex and mutual Altoterma variables, economic and social development, cultural and human and environmental impacts, the level of all of any society, and on the level part of any individual or family." And sometimes called the content of population termed: Content Population Education . Geography books Textbooks are approved by the Ministry of Education for grades six post-secondary secondary school year 2005/2006, 2006/2007. Secondary A secondary school in Iraq, the second level in the educational ladder, and be consecutive two levels: medium (I, II, III) and intermediate (IV, V, VI). Theoretical background The content of population education Is content - content - The second element of the curriculum for the education of the population, they constitute the outline of its essence a narrow concept of the curriculum. (Yadav, 1999VII: p.1) And the content is a combination of: "The information, principles, concepts, ideas, and the attendant fees and Souroashkal illustrative questions and applications, including these terms of knowledge of new topics entirely on the learner, and other topics designed to help achieve coherence between courses, and the content is the mediator who achieved through the educational objectives. "(Kubaisi, 2007: p. 137) And if "population studies" is defined as the sum total of knowledge, concepts and theories that describe or to interpret mobility of population, the fool and their relationship to social, cultural, political and biological weapons, they constitute a solid knowledge base that should be in the areas of population education and development needs. At the same time does not pose an integrated population studies note, it is a term used within the framework of educational terms, the equivalent of a format for content produced by the various sciences and professional disciplines. (Pandey, 1999 I: p.5) In that light consists of "content population" of the total knowledge and information, concepts and principles that describe or explain, or explain, or analyze the issues of population, such as: population size, distribution and dynamics, structure, and its relationship Yalawaml Alajnmaip, economic and cultural level of the whole and part. (UNESCO, 1986: p. 16) When the frame content population curriculum of education in accordance with the design Madrros and equipped in line with the educational structure and types of education prevailing in the country, in a language understood by teachers and students, this content is called the "content of population education". (Pandey, 1999 I: pp.7-9) The content of population education differs from one country to another according to the national cultural heritage and population demographics in each country also differs between researchers interested in them, as well as variation in the size of the circle of concern. (Salloum, 2005: p. 478) Based on the concepts of systemic theory, the content of population education is divided into three sections (from the most general concepts to least): 1. Domains (knowledge base of the breeding population): The fields of science which they are derived concepts of population education, and is the main entrance of the population and raising the most public, including the implications derived President. 2. Main content: It warheads themes derived from population areas, and associated concepts in the form of facts and information, knowledge, principles and theories in population education. 3. Sub content: Which knowledge, information and concepts derived from the contents of the Chairperson, the keywords for Education of the population. (Olive, 1998: p. 3), (Al-Ahmadi, 2007: p. 14), (Ahmad, 2004: p. 387-388) And control the three levels above relationship, interactive and integrated between the areas of population education and its implications main and subsidiary. And extends this relationship as well as cognitive aspects, to the ethics of population values, attitudes and skills required Tdmina in the goals, content and activities by curriculum planners and programs, as required by teachers and taken into account in the modalities teaching, and in the appropriate evaluation Achtiarodoat them. (Salloum, 2005: p. 947) Whatever the Omerfon the current concept of breeding population is the result of a gradual process allows us to grapple saw that the various dimensions (UNESCO, 1986: p. 21). In this context, can be adopted matrices Mphahmip population Alitarmufahimi which fall, in which, content analysis, which can include the following: ■ basic concepts (Chairperson). ■ sub-concepts. ■ topics that fall under the sub-themes or dimensions are essential to them. Has been the inclusion of these concepts and topics in the matrices by which to recognize the existence of the concept according to the book and chapter and page. These arrays are: A: matrix population issues. II: Matrix of issues of reproductive and sexual health. III: a matrix of gender issues. (Novell, 2006: p. 12-20) And specializes in the first matrix above the content of population education in geography classes only (that is the subject of current research), which was adopted in the building or the examination of the matrix on the literature of population education (with Tarigaha effort possible), especially the UNESCO documents, and some field studies, such as: study Nofal 2006, and the study Olawepo2000 , the study of olive 1992, the study Kaoud 1997. As for the second and third matrices above Vtakhtassan population education content in the curriculum of the other non-geographical material (social studies, science, biology, of Islamic education, chemistry, physics, health education, family education, physical education ,.....). It is possible that the material of the geographical model to be emulated by the rest of the systematic subjects other non-geographic matrices with respect to the other two, in the research coming on Education Alskanbp. Studies Elsa bug Concluded that the regional seminar on population education and curriculum development held in Rabat / Morocco, in January 1980, and was attended by thirty-seven educators from seventeen Arab countries (including Iraq) to a consensus of opinion that despite the differences in demographics and social differences and policy, there is a consensus on the desirability of population education, there is also recognition of the contribution expected in the development efforts of the Arab countries. (UNESCO 1987: p. 94) Promised population education (at the seminar above) is part of the education process as a whole, and is intended to help learners to organize their lives and their surroundings, thereby improving their quality of life, so there is no contradiction between population education and cultural values of the Arab community. Also relate to a document that both countries want to increase the density of population, or countries that want to fix the rates of population growth has Tgieranmat or population distribution. (Borer, 2007: p. 13) He Allagany and Prince in 1982 that the population education based on facts derived from geography, in order to contain this flag information on family life and economic development and population ... And this information can be directed during the presentation of the desired effect that occurs in the students, and here comes the importance of teaching methods and school activities and the enthusiasm of the teacher and his belief in the facts submitted by the students. (Allagany and Prince, 1982: p. 59) He also stressed the development of comprehensive educational in Amman 1987, of the necessity of teaching population education and development of population awareness through the integration of concepts and broadcast content in the curriculum, especially in the curricula of geography and its decisions, aware of the officials at the time of the importance of the close relationship between population education and the teaching of geography in particular, and teaching Other items on the Nhuaam. (Kaoud, 2001: p. 85) In this context, resulting - time - field studies, including several that dealt with the content of written material Aljgerafbp population issues recall some of them are as follows: In 1992 Karen and others (Karen and other) with a survey in the United States for thirty text of the texts available in the geography books of renowned authors to stand on trying to extract the extent of explaining the concepts of population education, which resulted in the results matrices show the order of each text in the planning of the topics of population, and helped These arrays of teachers in the development plans on the weaknesses of the current texts, and knowledge of the materials they need to improve the subjects. (Karen and other, 1992) Olive also held in 1992 in Syria, a study aimed at developing the content of population education in the curricula of geography, where it addressed the two axes: the first is theoretical: to ensure the theoretical basis for the system of education of population and the population issue, and analyze the content in the curricula of population and geography books and assessment. And the second is practical: to ensure testing unit in Population Education entitled «global population growth», and improve the content and measuring effectiveness. The study found that the textbooks of the school curriculum at the secondary level lack the contents of population education and suffer from lack of quantitative and qualitative, in addition to a highly effective in self-learning of the contents of the unit advanced. (Olive, 1992: p. 131-132) In a study distinct by Kaoud and Abaineh in 1997 in Jordan / Yarmouk University, entitled: «the availability of population education in the geography books to the upper basic in Jordan and the acquisition of teachers have», which aimed to identify the availability of the concepts of population education through the analysis of written content Geography at this stage of study, and point of view of teachers who teach classes «VIII, IX, and X», and the teachers to acquire them. The results indicate that the book Aljgerafbp for the tenth grade was in the first place the availability of the concepts of population education, followed by the ninth grade book, and then the eighth grade. The results showed differences in how teachers acquire the concepts of population education due to the sex of the teacher and specialization, experience and qualifications and to participate in courses and the university where he graduated. (Kaoud, 2001: p. 57) A study in Nigeria / University of IIorin / Faculty of Education in 2000, by Aolaepo (Olawepo) and aimed at proposing a strategy of population education directly to the curricula of Population Studies in Nigerian secondary schools, in order to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of population to deal with teachers. The study sample was limited to social studies books for grades three to this point and a focus on the geography books. The study method of analyzing content-based approaches to these studies in order to determine current patterns of breeding population, using the three frames are separate from each other - suggested in the literature of population education - and the selection of themes and units of desirable breeding population, and then prepare a final list of integrated curriculum, social studies exist. The result of this study for the number of units, belonging to the breeding population in the social studies curriculum was 35 species, half of geography. (Olawepo, 2000: pp.125-140) D'Souza conducted and Colson (Colson & De souza) in 2005 a survey of population education from the viewpoint of school geography in secondary education, who make up 60% of the study population in the U.S. state of Minnesota / Population Reference Bureau / Education Association of geography. The results showed relevant to the subject that the time allotted for class in the area of population education ranges between arithmetic average (3-4) hours per week, and that 10% of the year is devoted to teaching population topics (Colson & De souza, 2005: pp.1-7) . In 2006, Novell and others in Lebanon / Educational Center for Research and Development / Ministry of Higher Education analyzes the content of textbooks in the field of population education in secondary education, the geography books to share more than 18%. The analysis was based on the method of content analysis, where the inclusion of population concepts and topics in a matrix which can recognize the existence of concepts according to the book and the lesson page. The study was based on references to the population and international documents, regional and large wealth of scientific and educational. It was agreed to identify the following headings as President of the concepts of population content in textbooks that have been subject to analysis: ■ distribution of the population. ■ structure of the population. ■ family. ■ gender equality and the empowerment of women. ■ reproductive health. ■ population growth. ■ mobility of the population. ■ Population and Development. Has resulted in recommendations to address deficiencies and weaknesses in the content current population status and plans for the advancement of education by including feed the population cope with the conceptual development progress on the nation and the world. (Novell and others, 2006: p. 19-64) It follows from these studies researcher Mayati: ■ lack some geography books and curricula for the content of population education that some of the content analysis technique is used, the adoption of the Conceptual matrices. ■ developed some special units of population education concepts. ■ confirmed the introduction of population education concepts manner immunization and not in a separate new article. ■ The arithmetic mean of the content of the population within 10% of the school year. ■ pave it to take advantage of the conceptual framework of the matrices by other researchers or other countries based on the activities of international and regional organizations. The research methodology and procedures Researcher adopted a descriptive research method based on surveys (general survey content analysis) through the interrogation of a sample of the research community indirectly in order to describe and analyze the phenomenon studied, in addition to analyzing the content of textbooks placed the search. Community Search Research community consists of all teachers of geography at the secondary level in the province of Anbar's (611) and a school teacher and they make up about (8%) of the total teachers of the province. They are also distributed on (367) High School with varying degrees and different sex (according to statistics from the Directorate of Education Anbar). Sample Search Achtiaraeinp was stratified random from the research community as follows: ■ was random selection of 5% of the schools of any research community (18) High School. ■ The selection was random, the two individuals of two teachers in each geographical schools of the sample. ■ After the statistical treatment of waste has become the final number of respondents (36) and are dealt with Mbhotha. Search Tool The researcher used the questionnaire tool to achieve the goals of his research included assessment of the relative weight of the content of population (Annex 1), and the probe opinions of respondents through the exit outcome of the process of calculating the number of pages in each of the content of population and the total content of the geography books as each row from the ranks of high school, and then estimate the proportion of percentage. Are then compared with the corresponding estimates of the researcher. The content was true of the tool through the collection of data that reflect the same subject to be measured. Also check the truthfulness virtual to the attention of a group of specialists with expertise in geography and teaching methods, where the wording of questions approved after minor amendments. The stability of the tool were confirmed through the use of stability coefficient (Pearson correlation coefficient) between the two applications of the tool between two weeks to 15 teachers and a school other than a sample, where the coefficient is within 0.92 Statistical methods Was applied the following formula to estimate the relative weight of the content of population geography books: Number of pages (the content of population) Weight content = --------------- Total pages (for the total content) × 100 (Colson & De souza, 2005: pp.1-7 (Zaher, 1992: p. 80-88) Was also used frequency, percentages, and arithmetic mean in the statistical treatment of data. Supplies Search 1. For the purpose of determining the relative weight of the content of population geography books in high school, the researcher number of pages that the teacher taught. Two methods were adopted for that are: ■ The first method, and as is currently the chapter on population in each book of the textbooks of the six geographical content Scania independent and integrated. ■ The second method, a method proposed arrangement of the content of the population depends to focus the analysis on the way of "content analysis", which is to identify the core concepts of role concepts of subsidiary (Appendix 2), and contains some of the recent number of topics that fall under it, or constitute essential dimensions them. Has been the inclusion of these concepts and themes through the second method above in a matrix by which to recognize the existence of the concept according to the book and chapter and page (Annex 2). 2. Adopted by comparing the results of the above two methods as a means to identify the statistical indicators for the content current population on the one hand, and then re-arranged on the other. 3. Was the adoption of research results of a questionnaire (tool) to view the content of population estimates of the geography books for each of the six grades at the secondary level, and that from the standpoint of a school geography classes (subjects). He asked a researcher at the search tool of the teachers in geography classes in each of the secondary grades estimate the relative weight of the content of any population-related issues of population education, depending on the content standards of population (selection and organization), and in the light of the content of the first matrix. This is a rough estimate of the relative weight of the subject and vocabulary that will be measured by collecting the learner at the test substance, so you can find this account "setting up pages" to teach each of the test substance in relation to other topics, and a comparison with the results account for the relative weight it by the researcher (Appendix 2). Sources Holy Quran. 1. Ibrahim, Riad et al, 2006, Principles of General Geography / Grade I mean,, i 25 revised, publications and the Ministry of Education Press, the struggle of self-made, Baghdad, Iraq. 1. Ahmed, Adnan and others, 2004, environmental education, population, publications, Damascus University, Faculty of Education, Syria. 2. 3. Hadid, Ahmad Saeed, et al, 2005, the economic geography of the sixth-grade literary, i 24, Publications of the Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq 4. 5. Digger, Saeed Mohammed, 1999, in-depth study, the unit of Environmental Studies, University of Qatar, Doha, Qatar. 6. 7. Olive, Adnan Salman, 1998, Population Education, House of Dawn, Amman, Jordan. 8. Salloum, Tahir Abdul Karim, 2005, the reference in the population education, publications, Damascus University, Faculty of Education, Syria, Damascus. 9. Sykes, Auchi, 1993, review of population education: a technical study number (2) translation and publication of the United Nations Fund for Population, New York. 10. Sharif, Ibrahim, et al, 2006, Geography of the Arab world to the second intermediate grade, i 24 revised publication of the Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq. 11. Zahir, Mohammed Zakaria, 2002, Principles of Measurement and Evaluation in Education, i 1, Dar international scientific, Amman, Jordan. 12. Kaoud, Abraham, and others, 2001, the availability of population education in the geography books to the upper basic in Jordan and the teachers to acquire it, at Damascus University Journal, Volume 17, Issue, 2001, Damascus, Syria. 13. . Demographic Centre in Cairo, 1978, population and education in Iraq, working paper submitted by the researcher Thamer Abdel Hamid Kubaisi to the Seminar on Regional Planning and Population was held at the headquarters of the Egyptian Geographical Society for the period 1-8/10/1978, Cairo, Egypt. Publication (CDC). 14. Kubaisi, Thamer Abdel Hamid, 1977, tables of school life in Iraq (School Life Table in Iraq), non-demographic research publication is submitted to the long cycle / Diploma of the Cairo Demographic Center (CDC), Cairo, Egypt. 15. Kubaisi, Thamer Abdel Hamid, 1979, population dynamics and development of education in Iraq, a summary of Master (in Arabic) in the philosophy of Demography of the Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) Egypt. 16. Kubaisi, Thamer Abdel Hamid, 2004, a study in population education, demographic research published in the Journal of Human Sciences and economic development (scientific journal the Court) issued by the Al Anbar University, the second issue - May 2004, Al Anbar, Iraq. 17. . Kubaisi, Thamer Abdel Hamid, 2009, population education concepts and skills taught and trends so the teachers of secondary education, unpublished PhD thesis, Academy of scientific and humanistic studies, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq. 18. Kubaisi, Abdul Wahid Hamid, 2007, Measurement and Evaluation, renovations and discussions i 1, Greer House for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan. 19. Lakany, Ahmed, Prince, Radwan, 1982, the teaching of social, i 3, the world of books, Cairo, Egypt. 20. UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and Oceania, Bangkok, Thailand, 1981 A, population education, a reference book for content and methodology, translated from English into Arabic by the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in the Arab States, Publications of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in the Arab countries, Beirut, Lebanon. 21. Nofal, solution et al, 2006, to examine the content of textbooks in the field of population education with a focus on the concepts of gender and reproductive health, publications of the Centre for Educational Research and Development, Ministry of Education and Higher Education in cooperation with the United Nations Fund for Population, Beirut, Lebanon. 22. Hiti, Sabri Faris and others, 2006, General Geography for fourth grade year, i 18 revised publication of the Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq. 23. , 2006 A, the principles of natural Alhgravep fifth grade literary, i 27, Publications of the Ministry of Education, Baghdad, Iraq. 24. UNESCO, 1986, the preparation of teachers in the field of population education, a practical guide, publications of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO, UNESCO Press, Paris, France. 25. UNESCO, 1987, interest in contemporary population education, a study on population education concepts and methodology, publications, Regional Office for Education in the Arab world, Beirut, Lebanon. 26.Colson & De Souza, 2005, PRB Survey of Population Education, PRB, USA. 27.Karen and other, 1992, Who's Covering Population in social Studies, 1v2 A Survey of Secondary Socail Studies, Text zero Population Growth, Inc. , Washington, D.c. 20036, Ed.377048. 28, Olawepo, JA, 2000, Introducing Population Education into The Social Studies Curriculum at The Junior Secondary School Level in Nigeria, Ilorin Journal of Education Vol.20 Jun 2000, University of Ilorin, Education College, Nageria. 29. Pandey, J. I, 1999, Population Education in, Population Education.Content and Methodology, ch. 1, Faculty of Education, Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, A Central University, 30.Thamer, Abdul-Majeed Hameed Al-kubaisi,, 1979, Population Dynamics and Educational Development in Iraq, Master (Unpublished) Thesis, Cairo Demographic Center, CDC, (UN - ARE), Cairo. 31.Jamie Millie Islamia, New Delhi, India. 32. Yadav,. SB, 1999, V11 Curriculum Development in Population Education, Content and Methodology, Jamie Millie, New Delhi, India. D. Abdel Hamid al-Kubaisi Academic Title: Academy of Scientific Studies and Humanities, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq. Address: Iraq / Ministry of Education / General Directorate for Educational Anbar province / Director of Qualification and Training ساهم بترجمة أفضل شكراً لمساهمتك في تقديم اقتراح حول الترجمة في خدمة Google للترجمة. ساهم بترجمة أفضل: The content of population education: Dr. Abdel Hamid Kubaisi content of population education <br>Geography books in school among high school in Iraq <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>Researcher <br>D. Thamer Abdel Hamid al-Kubaisi <br> <br>Directorate General for Education in the Anbar province <br>Preparation and Training Manager <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>Search demographic educational publication in the Journal of Anbar University for Human Sciences <br>(Scientific periodical court quarterly) issued by the Al Anbar University <br>Volume IV - Issue IV - December 2009 <br> <br>(P. 216-231) <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>2009 1431 H <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>In the name of God the Merciful <br> <br>[... And remember when you were little Vktherkm ...] <br>The truth of God Almighty <br>(Custom 86) <br> <br>The content of population education <br>Geography books in school among high school in Iraq <br> <br>The definition of research <br> <br>Research Problem <br>The research problem was heckled at the following: <br>■ Mamady the availability of population education concepts in the geography books in the secondary stage in Iraq. <br> <br>■ What is the weight of the relative weight of the content of population geography books in the secondary stage by six ranks, according to both the middle and lower. <br> <br>■ What is the level of knowledge and skill of teachers of geography in the secondary stage to determine the size of population issues in geography classes, they teach. <br> <br>Objective of this research and its importance <br>The research aims to identify the availability of the concepts of population education in the geography books to the ranks of secondary education, and determining the relative weight it, and stand on their knowledge of teachers and Madrsadtha the size of population issues contained in these books. <br> <br>The importance they are: to identify some aspects of the development of population education in school curricula in Iraq and specifically wrote an article geography, and the preparation of matrices Mphahmip population of geography classes in the light of global activity and renewal, educational and development requirements in the country and the use of curriculum planners and policymakers Alaqrarvi vaccination textbooks for geography, as well the urgent need to train and prepare teachers of geography at the secondary level by using the appropriate methods and strategies. Finally, fill part of the vacuum of knowledge in the field of population studies in Iraq. <br> <br> <br>Frontiers of research <br>Search limited to: <br> <br>■ geography books for grades six to high school in Iraq: the first, second, third, fourth year, the fifth literary, literary VI. And published in 2005.2006. <br> <br>■ Aguetsralbges teachers and teachers who teach geography in Anbar province, for the academic year 2006/2007. <br> <br>■ weight of the content of population education, which includes demographic dimensions of the content of population geography classes, the ranks of secondary education (the first matrix of the content of the education population). <br> <br>Determine the terms <br> <br>Population Education <br>Known researcher procedural as &quot;an effort to education intended aims to enable learners to obtain the knowledge, attitudes and values necessary to understand and assess the status of the population field, and Alawal influencing it, and Toterhma the situation in the well-being of families, communities and the country and the world, present and future, then rational decisions and do appropriate behavior to serve the comprehensive development in light of the elements of society and its potential. &quot; <br> <br>The content of population education <br>Known researcher procedurally as a &quot;body of knowledge and information, concepts and principles concerned with population issues and their relationship to complex and mutual Altoterma variables, economic and social development, cultural and human and environmental impacts, the level of all of any society, and on the level part of any individual or family.&quot; And sometimes called the content of population termed: Content Population Education <br>. <br> <br> <br>Geography books <br>Textbooks are approved by the Ministry of Education for grades six post-secondary secondary school year 2005/2006, 2006/2007. <br> <br>Secondary <br>A secondary school in Iraq, the second level in the educational ladder, and be consecutive two levels: medium (I, II, III) and intermediate (IV, V, VI). <br> <br> <br>Theoretical background <br> <br>The content of population education <br> <br>Is content - content - The second element of the curriculum for the education of the population, they constitute the outline of its essence a narrow concept of the curriculum. (Yadav, 1999VII: p.1) <br> <br>And the content is a combination of: &quot;The information, principles, concepts, ideas, and the attendant fees and Souroashkal illustrative questions and applications, including these terms of knowledge of new topics entirely on the learner, and other topics designed to help achieve coherence between courses, and the content is the mediator who achieved through the educational objectives. &quot;(Kubaisi, 2007: p. 137) <br> <br>And if &quot;population studies&quot; is defined as the sum total of knowledge, concepts and theories that describe or to interpret mobility of population, the fool and their relationship to social, cultural, political and biological weapons, they constitute a solid knowledge base that should be in the areas of population education and development needs. At the same time does not pose an integrated population studies note, it is a term used within the framework of educational terms, the equivalent of a format for content produced by the various sciences and professional disciplines. (Pandey, 1999 I: p.5) <br> <br>In that light consists of &quot;content population&quot; of the total knowledge and information, concepts and principles that describe or explain, or explain, or analyze the issues of population, such as: population size, distribution and dynamics, structure, and its relationship Yalawaml Alajnmaip, economic and cultural level of the whole and part. (UNESCO, 1986: p. 16) <br> <br>When the frame content population curriculum of education in accordance with the design Madrros and equipped in line with the educational structure and types of education prevailing in the country, in a language understood by teachers and students, this content is called the &quot;content of population education&quot;. (Pandey, 1999 I: pp.7-9) <br> <br>The content of population education differs from one country to another according to the national cultural heritage and population demographics in each country also differs between researchers interested in them, as well as variation in the size of the circle of concern. (Salloum, 2005: p. 478) <br> <br>Based on the concepts of systemic theory, the content of population education is divided into three sections (from the most general concepts to least): <br> <br>1. Domains (knowledge base of the breeding population): <br>The fields of science which they are derived concepts of population education, and is the main entrance of the population and raising the most public, including the implications derived President. <br> <br>2. Main content: <br>It warheads themes derived from population areas, and associated concepts in the form of facts and information, knowledge, principles and theories in population education. <br> <br>3. Sub content: <br>Which knowledge, information and concepts derived from the contents of the Chairperson, the keywords for Education of the population. <br>(Olive, 1998: p. 3), (Al-Ahmadi, 2007: p. 14), (Ahmad, 2004: p. 387-388) <br> <br>And control the three levels above relationship, interactive and integrated between the areas of population education and its implications main and subsidiary. And extends this relationship as well as cognitive aspects, to the ethics of population values, attitudes and skills required Tdmina in the goals, content and activities by curriculum planners and programs, as required by teachers and taken into account in the modalities teaching, and in the appropriate evaluation Achtiarodoat them. (Salloum, 2005: p. 947) <br> <br>Whatever the Omerfon the current concept of breeding population is the result of a gradual process allows us to grapple saw that the various dimensions (UNESCO, 1986: p. 21). In this context, can be adopted matrices Mphahmip population Alitarmufahimi which fall, in which, content analysis, which can include the following: <br> <br>■ basic concepts (Chairperson). <br>■ sub-concepts. <br>■ topics that fall under the sub-themes or dimensions are essential to them. <br>Has been the inclusion of these concepts and topics in the matrices by which to recognize the existence of the concept according to the book and chapter and page. These arrays are: <br>A: matrix population issues. <br>II: Matrix of issues of reproductive and sexual health. <br>III: a matrix of gender issues. (Novell, 2006: p. 12-20) <br> <br>And specializes in the first matrix above the content of population education in geography classes only (that is the subject of current research), which was adopted in the building or the examination of the matrix on the literature of population education (with Tarigaha effort possible), especially the UNESCO documents, and some field studies, such as: study Nofal 2006, and the study Olawepo2000 , the study of olive 1992, the study Kaoud 1997. <br> <br>As for the second and third matrices above Vtakhtassan population education content in the curriculum of the other non-geographical material (social studies, science, biology, of Islamic education, chemistry, physics, health education, family education, physical education ,.....). It is possible that the material of the geographical model to be emulated by the rest of the systematic subjects other non-geographic matrices with respect to the other two, in the research coming on Education Alskanbp. <br> <br>Studies Elsa bug <br>Concluded that the regional seminar on population education and curriculum development held in Rabat / Morocco, in January 1980, and was attended by thirty-seven educators from seventeen Arab countries (including Iraq) to a consensus of opinion that despite the differences in demographics and social differences and policy, there is a consensus on the desirability of population education, there is also recognition of the contribution expected in the development efforts of the Arab countries. (UNESCO 1987: p. 94) <br> <br>Promised population education (at the seminar above) is part of the education process as a whole, and is intended to help learners to organize their lives and their surroundings, thereby improving their quality of life, so there is no contradiction between population education and cultural values of the Arab community. Also relate to a document that both countries want to increase the density of population, or countries that want to fix the rates of population growth has Tgieranmat or population distribution. (Borer, 2007: p. 13) <br> <br>He Allagany and Prince in 1982 that the population education based on facts derived from geography, in order to contain this flag information on family life and economic development and population ... And this information can be directed during the presentation of the desired effect that occurs in the students, and here comes the importance of teaching methods and school activities and the enthusiasm of the teacher and his belief in the facts submitted by the students. (Allagany and Prince, 1982: p. 59) <br> <br>He also stressed the development of comprehensive educational in Amman 1987, of the necessity of teaching population education and development of population awareness through the integration of concepts and broadcast content in the curriculum, especially in the curricula of geography and its decisions, aware of the officials at the time of the importance of the close relationship between population education and the teaching of geography in particular, and teaching Other items on the Nhuaam. (Kaoud, 2001: p. 85) <br> <br>In this context, resulting - time - field studies, including several that dealt with the content of written material Aljgerafbp population issues recall some of them are as follows: <br>In 1992 Karen and others (Karen and other) with a survey in the United States for thirty text of the texts available in the geography books of renowned authors to stand on trying to extract the extent of explaining the concepts of population education, which resulted in the results matrices show the order of each text in the planning of the topics of population, and helped These arrays of teachers in the development plans on the weaknesses of the current texts, and knowledge of the materials they need to improve the subjects. (Karen and other, 1992) <br> <br>Olive also held in 1992 in Syria, a study aimed at developing the content of population education in the curricula of geography, where it addressed the two axes: the first is theoretical: to ensure the theoretical basis for the system of education of population and the population issue, and analyze the content in the curricula of population and geography books and assessment. And the second is practical: to ensure testing unit in Population Education entitled «global population growth», and improve the content and measuring effectiveness. The study found that the textbooks of the school curriculum at the secondary level lack the contents of population education and suffer from lack of quantitative and qualitative, in addition to a highly effective in self-learning of the contents of the unit advanced. (Olive, 1992: p. 131-132) <br> <br>In a study distinct by Kaoud and Abaineh in 1997 in Jordan / Yarmouk University, entitled: «the availability of population education in the geography books to the upper basic in Jordan and the acquisition of teachers have», which aimed to identify the availability of the concepts of population education through the analysis of written content Geography at this stage of study, and point of view of teachers who teach classes «VIII, IX, and X», and the teachers to acquire them. The results indicate that the book Aljgerafbp for the tenth grade was in the first place the availability of the concepts of population education, followed by the ninth grade book, and then the eighth grade. The results showed differences in how teachers acquire the concepts of population education due to the sex of the teacher and specialization, experience and qualifications and to participate in courses and the university where he graduated. (Kaoud, 2001: p. 57) <br> <br>A study in Nigeria / University of IIorin / Faculty of Education in 2000, by Aolaepo (Olawepo) and aimed at proposing a strategy of population education directly to the curricula of Population Studies in Nigerian secondary schools, in order to demonstrate the fundamental concepts of population to deal with teachers. The study sample was limited to social studies books for grades three to this point and a focus on the geography books. The study method of analyzing content-based approaches to these studies in order to determine current patterns of breeding population, using the three frames are separate from each other - suggested in the literature of population education - and the selection of themes and units of desirable breeding population, and then prepare a final list of integrated curriculum, social studies exist. The result of this study for the number of units, belonging to the breeding population in the social studies curriculum was 35 species, half of geography. (Olawepo, 2000: pp.125-140) <br> <br>D&#39;Souza conducted and Colson (Colson &amp; De souza) in 2005 a survey of population education from the viewpoint of school geography in secondary education, who make up 60% of the study population in the U.S. state of Minnesota / Population Reference Bureau / Education Association of geography. The results showed relevant to the subject that the time allotted for class in the area of population education ranges between arithmetic average (3-4) hours per week, and that 10% of the year is devoted to teaching population topics (Colson &amp; De souza, 2005: pp.1-7) . <br> <br>In 2006, Novell and others in Lebanon / Educational Center for Research and Development / Ministry of Higher Education analyzes the content of textbooks in the field of population education in secondary education, the geography books to share more than 18%. The analysis was based on the method of content analysis, where the inclusion of population concepts and topics in a matrix which can recognize the existence of concepts according to the book and the lesson page. The study was based on references to the population and international documents, regional and large wealth of scientific and educational. It was agreed to identify the following headings as President of the concepts of population content in textbooks that have been subject to analysis: <br> <br>■ distribution of the population. <br>■ structure of the population. <br>■ family. <br>■ gender equality and the empowerment of women. <br>■ reproductive health. <br>■ population growth. <br>■ mobility of the population. <br>■ Population and Development. <br> <br>Has resulted in recommendations to address deficiencies and weaknesses in the content current population status and plans for the advancement of education by including feed the population cope with the conceptual development progress on the nation and the world. <br>(Novell and others, 2006: p. 19-64) <br> <br>It follows from these studies researcher Mayati: <br> <br>■ lack some geography books and curricula for the content of population education that some of the content analysis technique is used, the adoption of the Conceptual matrices. <br> <br>■ developed some special units of population education concepts. <br> <br>■ confirmed the introduction of population education concepts manner immunization and not in a separate new article. <br> <br>■ The arithmetic mean of the content of the population within 10% of the school year. <br>■ pave it to take advantage of the conceptual framework of the matrices by other researchers or other countries based on the activities of international and regional organizations. <br> <br>The research methodology and procedures <br> <br>Researcher adopted a descriptive research method based on surveys (general survey content analysis) through the interrogation of a sample of the research community indirectly in order to describe and analyze the phenomenon studied, in addition to analyzing the content of textbooks placed the search. <br> <br>Community Search <br> <br>Research community consists of all teachers of geography at the secondary level in the province of Anbar&#39;s (611) and a school teacher and they make up about (8%) of the total teachers of the province. They are also distributed on (367) High School with varying degrees and different sex (according to statistics from the Directorate of Education Anbar). <br> <br>Sample Search <br>Achtiaraeinp was stratified random from the research community as follows: <br> <br>■ was random selection of 5% of the schools of any research community (18) High School. <br> <br>■ The selection was random, the two individuals of two teachers in each geographical schools of the sample. <br> <br>■ After the statistical treatment of waste has become the final number of respondents (36) and are dealt with Mbhotha. <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>Search Tool <br>The researcher used the questionnaire tool to achieve the goals of his research included assessment of the relative weight of the content of population (Annex 1), and the probe opinions of respondents through the exit outcome of the process of calculating the number of pages in each of the content of population and the total content of the geography books as each row from the ranks of high school, and then estimate the proportion of percentage. Are then compared with the corresponding estimates of the researcher. <br>The content was true of the tool through the collection of data that reflect the same subject to be measured. Also check the truthfulness virtual to the attention of a group of specialists with expertise in geography and teaching methods, where the wording of questions approved after minor amendments. The stability of the tool were confirmed through the use of stability coefficient (Pearson correlation coefficient) between the two applications of the tool between two weeks to 15 teachers and a school other than a sample, where the coefficient is within 0.92 <br>Statistical methods <br>Was applied the following formula to estimate the relative weight of the content of population geography books: <br> <br>Number of pages (the content of population) <br>Weight content = --------------- <br>Total pages (for the total content) <br> <br>× 100 <br> <br>(Colson &amp; De souza, 2005: pp.1-7 <br> <br>(Zaher, 1992: p. 80-88) <br> <br>Was also used frequency, percentages, and arithmetic mean in the statistical treatment of data. <br> <br>Supplies Search <br>1. For the purpose of determining the relative weight of the content of population geography books in high school, the researcher number of pages that the teacher taught. Two methods were adopted for that are: <br> <br>■ The first method, and as is currently the chapter on population in each book of the textbooks of the six geographical content Scania independent and integrated. <br> <br>■ The second method, a method proposed arrangement of the content of the population depends to focus the analysis on the way of &quot;content analysis&quot;, which is to identify the core concepts of role concepts of subsidiary (Appendix 2), and contains some of the recent number of topics that fall under it, or constitute essential dimensions them. (نوفل,2006:ص20) <br> <br>Has been the inclusion of these concepts and themes through the second method above in a matrix by which to recognize the existence of the concept according to the book and chapter and page (Annex 2). <br> <br>2. Adopted by comparing the results of the above two methods as a means to identify the statistical indicators for the content current population on the one hand, and then re-arranged on the other. <br> <br>3. Was the adoption of research results of a questionnaire (tool) to view the content of population estimates of the geography books for each of the six grades at the secondary level, and that from the standpoint of a school geography classes (subjects). He asked a researcher at the search tool of the teachers in geography classes in each of the secondary grades estimate the relative weight of the content of any population-related issues of population education, depending on the content standards of population (selection and organization), and in the light of the content of the first matrix. This is a rough estimate of the relative weight of the subject and vocabulary that will be measured by collecting the learner at the test substance, so you can find this account &quot;setting up pages&quot; to teach each of the test substance in relation to other topics, and a comparison with the results account for the relative weight it by the researcher (Appendix 2). <br> <br>( نتائج البحث ومناقشتها في الرسالة القادمة ان شاء الله تعالى) <br> <br> <br>Sources <br> <br>Holy Quran. <br> <br>1. Ibrahim, Riad et al, 2006, Principles of General Geography / Grade I mean,, i 25 revised, publications and the Ministry of Education Press, the struggle of self-made, Baghdad, Iraq. <br> <br>1. Ahmed, Adnan and others, 2004, environmental education, population, publications, Damascus University, Faculty of Education, Syria. <br> <br>2. <br> <br>3. 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I, 1999, Population Education in, Population Education.Content and Methodology, ch. 1, Faculty of Education, Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, A Central University, <br> <br>30.Thamer, Abdul-Majeed Hameed Al-kubaisi,, 1979, Population Dynamics and Educational Development in Iraq, Master (Unpublished) Thesis, Cairo Demographic Center, CDC, (UN - ARE), Cairo. <br> <br> <br>31.Jamie Millie Islamia, New Delhi, India. <br> <br>32. Yadav,. SB, 1999, V11 Curriculum Development in Population Education, Content and Methodology, Jamie Millie, New Delhi, India. <br> <br> <br> <br>D. Abdel Hamid al-Kubaisi <br> <br>Academic Title: Academy of Scientific Studies and Humanities, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, Baghdad, Iraq. <br> <br>Address: Iraq / Ministry of Education / General Directorate for Educational Anbar province / Director of Qualification and Training <br> <br>