Using 3D GIS to Assess Environmental Hazards in Built Environments (A Case Stud)y: Mina

Mina (near Makkah, Saudi Arabia) is a city of tents that accommodates around two million pilgrims
during the season of Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage). Mina’s built environment has special characteristics,
as it is mainly composed of light structured housing units (tents) in a valley surrounded by huge
mountains. These characteristics make this built environment very vulnerable to natural hazards,
such as falling rocks and floods from rain. A 3D GIS (Three Dimensional Geographic Information
System) was constructed to understand and analyze the locations, types, and sizes of the possible
natural risks in Mina. The 3D GIS can be used analyze slopes and investigate water drafting paths
and the locations of possible falling rocks. The paper provides illustrations of possible areas of risk,
using 2D and 3D visualizations and offers recommendations to avoid future environmental hazards.
The paper also shows areas that are prime locations for future development and assesses their
hazard-safety.

Title in English: 
Using 3D GIS to Assess Environmental Hazards in Built Environments (A Case Study: Mina)